Between subjects: Comparisons of data between two groups of
people doing the same task or under the same condition.
Captive transit users: Those people who have no other transportation options or access modes; usually non-drivers such as the poor, young, or those with certalin disabilities.
Cognitive maps: The internal mental representation of spatial knowledge.
Constraint: A factor that limits travel and activity particpation, such as time or the inability to use specific modes of travel.
Construct validity: The belief that the experiment accurantky mesure the theory being tested.
Contingent valuation method: Ssurvey methods designed to elicit the monetary benefit people place on goods or services.
Convergent validity: The belief that a theory which is supported by various types of experiments has more validity than one with fewer supporting types. Also called methodological convergence.
Cumulative opportunity measures: The number of locations that serve a particular need within a specific time or distance range.
Distance decay: A geographical term describing the restricting and limiting affect of distance on interaction between two locations.
Economic rationality: The classical view that decisions are made by those with complete and rational knowledge of he situation.
External product: The type of testing technique used to measure the internal cognitive map knowledge.
GPS: Global Positioning Systems (the array of orbiting satellites that provide latitude and longitude information).
Gravity measure: Based on the Euclidean measure, it measures the affect of human attraction between physical attractions and the friction to overcome distance.
Hidden demand: The transportation or access demand that is realized after a link has been improved.
Independent: Those who can travel without assistance.
Individual accessibility: As opposed to aggregate or location-based accessibility, individual accessibly attempts to measure the access or freedom allowed to a single person.
Inter-point distance measures: A method that determines a person's estimations of the distance between a group of points.
Means diamonds: Show the 95% confidence levels. If the diamonds of several tests overlap, there is no significant difference betwen the results.
Methodological convergence: The belief that a theory which is supported by various types of experiments has more validity than one with fewer supporting types. Also called convergent validity.
Place or location accessibility: Measures the accessibility of physical locations to each other, rather than how people actually access the environment.
Pointing task: Used to measure a person's responses when asked to point to variouslocations.
Regular method: The manner that blind people usually use, mostly using a cane or a guide dog, in this experiment, they used no other technology aid.
Relative access measure: The measure of the extra time or distance effort betwen people with various degrees of mobility or access modes.
Relative accessibility: The measure of the extra time or distance effort betwen people with various degrees of mobility or access modes .
Resistance: A measure of the difficulty that must be overcome to enable travel.
RIAS: Remote Infrared Audible Signage.
Sentence framing: A technigue where the subject fills in or completes a sentacne or phrase.
Space-time prisms: Hägerstrand's model which shows the time and direction of travel during a person's daily life.
Spatial knowledge: The degree of awareness about an environment.
Spatial products: Tests used to neasure the internal spatial knowledge or mental map information.
Time Geography: Introduced by Hägerstrand to show how overcoming distance consumes a person's limited time, therfoire time constraints directly affect travel and spatial behavior.
Time penalties: The additional time needed to perform the same function or trip as a typical user.
Utility function: the benefits derived from performing a task.
Utility measures: A method to put an empirical value on the utility of performing a task.
Willingness To Pay: Survey methods that mweasure monetary beneifts of various scenarios or activities.
Within subject: Comparisons of data with the same subjects under different conditions.
Zero sum game: A situation where a gain by one party must lead to a loss for another.